In order to makes sense of these shifts, narrow interpretations of race need to be enlarged to encompass the ways in which race and racism, culture and culturalism have become intertwined or, in some cases, made interchangeable. Culture, which as Robert Young (1995) reminds us has always been racial and vice versa, is naturalized to work like race from the anti-multiculturalist perspective, a phenomenon already observed by Martin Barker (1981) in his work on the new culturalist racism that emerged in tandem with Thatcherism in the UK in the early 1980s. Currently, the proposed replacement of multiculturalism with ‘integration’ should be understood therefore not as a critique of highly criticizable multiculturalist policies, but of ; that is of the racial/ethnic/cultural diversity, or what some have described as the (Parekh 1999), of post-immigration societies. The debate on multiculturalism can be understood as being inscribed in a post-racial logic because those who oppose multiculturalism see it as having been imposed by racial and ethnic minorities whose demands for recognition were prioritized over all other concerns. Proponents of this point of view oppose any action taken to point out or alleviate discrimination against the racialized as discriminating against the majority of whites, portrayed as excluded by hegemonic elites intent on pushing a guilt-assuaging multiculturalist agenda (Bruckner 2010). Taking this approach is said to be vindicated by the evidence of ‘homegrown’ terrorists and other ungrateful dissenters who have benefited from such generosity only to use it against their benevolent, if naıve, hosts.
Foucault’s explanation of modern racism in the lectures may not go far enough (Shein 2004) and certainly does not attempt to analyse race beyond the European context. However, for my purposes here, it is useful because it shows that what was brought about by the move to bio-power in the nineteenth century is a new relationship to enemies or outsiders that is no longer political but biological. For Ivan Hannaford (1996), this new understanding is not only externally oriented, it comes to infect and shape the running of European societies in the nineteenth century. At this time:
Section 2: The erosion of Jim Crow racism in the 1940s and 1950s
Racism is widespread and has caused major problems. Many people distrust or fear other people who look or act differently. Racism in the United States seems to be directed mainly by the white majority against racial or ethnic groups; such groups include Blacks, American-Indians, Mexican-Indians, etc. These minorities have been discriminated against in such areas as housing, education and employment.