Arrow points to a lumbar spondylolisthesis

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the evidence concerning the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention in the treatment of low back pain related to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. A literature search of published and unpublished articles resulted in the retrieval of 71 potential studies on the subject area. Fifty-two of the 71 articles were studies, and these studies were reviewed using preset relevance criteria. Given the inclusion and exclusion criteria chosen for this systematic review, there were very few acceptable studies and only two studies met the relevance criteria for the critical appraisal. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that specific exercise interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, have a positive effect on low-back pain due to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis; however, the type of exercise used was different in the two studies. In this review, very few prospective studies were found that examined the efficacy of physiotherapy on the topic area; therefore, few conclusions can be made, and further research is warranted.

Approximately 5%-6% of males, and 2%-3% of females have a spondylolisthesis.

In younger patients (under 20 years old), spondylolisthesis usually involves slippage of the fifth lumbar vertebra over the top of the sacrum. There are several reasons for this. First, the connection of L5 and the sacrum forms an angle that is tilted slightly forward, mainly because the top of the sacrum slopes forward. Second, the slight inward curve of the lumbar spine creates an additional forward tilt where L5 meets the sacrum. Finally, gravity attempts to pull L5 in a forward direction.


Spondylolisthesis may cause not only low but also severe .

Different types of spondylolisthesis may be caused in a various ways. Some examples are:

Spondylolisthesis may very rarely be congenital, which means it is present at birth. It can also occur in childhood as a result of injury. In older adults, degeneration of the disc and facet (spinal) joints can lead to spondylolisthesis.