1978 - 1981 Bachelor of Arts (Honours, First Class) - Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University. Thesis: Bishop Durieu's System and the Squamish Indians.
1983 - 1985 Master of Arts - Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria. Thesis: The Underwater Archaeology of Coast Salish Reefnetting.
1996 – 1998 Doctoral Program - Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto Thesis (incomplete): The Social History and Cultural Geography of the Southern Yukon - Alaska Borderlands.
University Of Toronto Masters Thesis